Major components of a circuit board
Understanding the raw materials of printed circuit board is a must to understand how its whole system works. A circuit board is generally composed of diodes, resistors, circuit chips, transistors and more.
Its substrate is mostly made of glass fiber with copper foil connected to both sides. The copper used is either plated or non-plated; the plating process covers it with lead to prevent rusting.
Methods of connecting its components
Printed circuits are composed of numerous components that have to be linked together. Connecting these circuits is made possible by either of these two methods:
• Through-hole technology –
This requires a drilled hole where wires and leads pass through and soldered to connection pads of the circuit components on the other side of the board. The combination of friction and gravity keeps everything in place while all circuits and wires are soldered.
• Surface-mount technology –
This method requires the circuit components to be glued and soldered at the contact points, holding all parts in place. This goes on until everything is connected after the fusing point is melted and all components are finally interconnected.
The second method undoubtedly requires more precision and accuracy during component placement. However, it saves you time from drilling small holes and the space in the board for pads. Nevertheless, both methods are simultaneously used in electrically connecting all components of a printed circuit board.
Process of manufacturing
Manufacturers have different ways of creating circuit boards. Ideally, the manufacturing environment should be clean and free from any materials and chemicals which may cause contamination.
• Creating a substrate –
Fiberglass is imbued (either by spraying or dipping) with epoxy resin. Afterwards, it is rolled in a roller to determine the thickness of the substrate and remove excess resin.
Afterwards, it passes through the oven again and is cut into panels. The cut panels are heated to finally melt the resin and have the copper foil merge with the surface of the substrate.
• Drilling and plating holes –
The panels are stacked one on top of the others and drilled according to the patterned size of the holes using the CNC machine. This is followed by plating the part of the hole designed to be a circuit conductor.
• Making the printed circuit pattern –
There are two ways on how to create patterns in the substrate. First is additive method where coppers are plated according to the preferred pattern, leaving the rest of the holes non-plated (the number of plated or non-plated holes depends on the manufacturer). Second is the subtractive method, in here, the whole substrate surface is plated first. Afterwards, the plate on areas not included in the pattern is removed.
• Fastening contact fingers –
Printed circuit and the substrate are connected by fastening the contact fingers at the brink of the substrate area. This is also plated with tin-lead, nickel, and gold.
• Fusing the tin-lead coat –
The tin-lead coat are melted in oven with hot temperature to turn into a thin, shiny surface. This method prevents it from oxidizing.
• Sealing, attaching and cutting –
Panels are covered with epoxy to prevent damage while all its other components are being attached. This is done through the use of different machines and technology. When everything is in place, the panels are cut into pieces.
• Packaging –
Each printed circuit board is individually packed in plastic cover.The printed circuit board industry is dynamic as it responds to the demands of the consumers and electronic manufacturers when it comes to size and capacity. Therefore, it’s safe to say that more developments in manufacturing are in store.
Pcbnet commitment to customers and constant awareness of high standards in service and quality has brought about a steady growth. For brief detail visit www.pcbnet.com.
Once you have found a good supplier of custom lanyards, it is time to tackle the task of designing it in every little detail. For many, lanyards may look simple. It has a long piece of fabric with an attachment on the end and then printed with the desired words or logos on its face. Every single part of it must be thought of carefully, though. This is important if you want your custom lanyards to function as you intend it to. Here a few tips for those who are planning to order their custom lanyards.
If you are going to use the lanyards for the identification cards, it is best to stick to nylon because it is tough, hence, can last the entire school year without tearing down. Nylon is a cheap material too. For those who intend to use their lanyards under harsh environments like contractors or field workers, woven lanyards are ideal because the design is woven into the fabric. This means that it will not peel off or fade and is expected to last as long as the fabric, which can be months or years.
If the custom lanyards, on the other hand, are to be used in a formal event, like a conference among businessmen or doctors, the organizers can opt for silk fabric. They are very stylish and classy, making them fit seamlessly with attendees who are in their suits and dresses.
The attachment you choose will be very dependent on what item you plan to use the lanyard for. For identification cards, a bulldog clip or any kind of hook will be appropriate. These can be made of plastic or metal, but if you are on a budget then settle for plastic hooks. For keys, choose the key ring. There are also attachments designed for mobile phones.
The good thing about ordering your own custom lanyards is that you can specify if you want an added attachment to be placed between the fabric and the hook or clip. These attachments are usually placed there for safety purposes, like the buckle release and the breakaway. These are attachments that can easily be snapped apart and are very handy in case you find your lanyard stuck in unusual places and you need to break away from it immediately to avoid getting hurt.
Another attachment that you can consider is the adjustment bead. This allows you to adjust the length of the lanyard so that it can be used by both young and old. Then there are badge holders in horizontal and vertical orientations. Pick one as needed.
You need to start with choosing the color of the fabric. This will be the base or background of your design. Then choose what color the designs should be. Lanyard makers will often show you a Pantone chart for accurate identification of colors. You can even use the chart when deciding which colors to use together to make them coordinated.
To make the design stand out, it is best to choose contrasting colors. Use large fonts for letters and they should be printed in bold if you want them to be readable even from a distance. For other images and design ideas, you can ask the supplier for suggestions. They usually offer artwork support to their customers.
Length and Width
Many people forget this little detail when ordering lanyards. One size does not fit all when it comes to lanyards, so consider who will be wearing them when ordering. Little kids need shorter lanyards to avoid having them hanging down to their waists. Width matters too in relation with your design. If you need large texts in your artwork, then go for the 1-inch lanyard. Whenever you are unsure, just get some support from the supplier as they can give good recommendations to you.
Now that you have covered all the bases, you are ready to order your customized lanyards in bulk. By having control of the various details of your lanyards, you can be absolutely sure that it will be the right design for your particular need.
The tradition of handing out challenge coins to enlisted men in military forces has popularized the minting of custom coins. These coins are engraved with the insignias and mottos of different military branches. They are issued to men and women who dedicate their service to protect the nation.
For military personnel, these custom coins are symbols of unit affiliation, brotherhood, and commitment. They represent every battle they fought, every mission they took, and every victory they won. They are the embodiment of their pride as freedom fighters and protectors.
Military coins are given to members of the Armed Forces which include the Army, Marines, Air Force, and Navy. They are considered honor coins and conferred to military personnel for their valiant acts during dangerous missions. They are called honor coins because they are given to those who went beyond their duties and risked their lives to win battles. They serve as recognition of the sacrifices rendered by these men in uniform.
These custom coins are small but priceless symbols of bravery and heroism of men and women in military units. They recognize the exemplary feats they achieve while doing their duties. They are also given to retired military officers who have done remarkable contributions.
During award ceremonies, these coins are presented to the rank and file by their commanding officers to acknowledge their selfless acts and heroic deeds. Military challenge coins are the epitome of sterling qualities of brave men and women who sacrifice their lives to serve the nation. This is the reason why these metal medallions are special. They are tokens of honor, respect, and gratitude.
Military coins are designed differently to distinguish each unit of the Armed Forces. Every unit has its own shape, design and material based on the symbolism they want to convey. However, the purpose behind them all remains the same – to salute the dedicated service of soldiers and recognize their commitment and courage.
Traditional military challenge coins are usually star-shaped, eagle-shaped, or round. Other symbols and mottos are added to enhance the significance of custom coins. They are made of metals such as platinum, gold, silver or bronze. Special recognitions need more exclusive designs to celebrate the occasion.
The traditional way to pass military challenge coins is through a special handshake. This covert way is unknown to the audience who only see the usual shaking of hands between a military official and a soldier. Sometimes, even recipients are surprised with the gesture. Earning challenge coins is one of the best rewards while in service. These coins are proof that their dedication to duty is appreciated.
High-ranking military officials sometimes surprise soldiers during their visit because they like giving challenge coins on a whim. Soldiers who get the attention of these officers usually find envelopes in their desks containing special coins. They convey a positive message, encouraging soldiers to keep up the good work and to show dedication to their duties.
In 2011, Defense Secretary Robert Gates visited Afghanistan and toured military bases. He shook hands with military guards manning these vital facilities. To the delight of these men and women, he shared with them special challenge coins, mainly to extend his gratitude for the service they rendered.
This secret handshake tradition of handing metal tokens was accounted to a story that originated during Second Boer War (battle of British and South Africans). British officials hired mercenaries to fight with them against the enemies. But they cannot reward them with medals because of their mercenary status. So, non-commissioned officers would steal medals given to military officers and cut the medallions. The small medallions would then be passed to deserving mercenaries through handshake. The silent recognition is as meaningful as public recognition.
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For beginner golfers, it can be very difficult to choose the type of grips for their clubs. Well, knowing a grip’s different features may help inexperienced golfers pinpoint a variant that’s perfect for a given scenario. Here are some of the things that golfers should pay attention to when purchasing golf grips.
The grip size is very important when choosing a golf grip. There are actually 4 sizes of golf grips. These are the oversize, midsize, standard size, and the undersize. If your size does not fall from any of the category, customization can be done. Customization involves placing extra layers of tapes when the grips are being installed to the clubs.
Professional golfers would agree that having a golf grip that is not fitted to your grip size can negatively affect your swing. If the grip is too small for you, it will push your hands to do extra movement which may cause pulling of the golf ball. On the other hand, a golf grip that is too big for you may hinder pronation of your wrists and thus, affect the quality of your shot. If you still do not know your actual grip size, there are grip gauges that can help you measure your actual grip. You can also ask help from professional club makers and grip fitters to find out the measurement of your grip.
It is also very important to consider the grip material when choosing a grip. Golf grips that are made of rubber are usually very durable. They also come in various shades and colors. On the other hand, grips that are made of cord are perfect for golfing in humid weather condition. Grips with cord weave provide extra traction that can prevent the hands from slipping when making a swing.
The texture of the grip is another factor to pay attention to. Grips come in various surface designs and patterns. And these designs are responsible for the smooth or coarse texture of the grip. The important thing to consider when choosing a grip texture is that it should be secured and comfortable. If you are the kind of golfer that does not wear gloves during the game then a grip surface with less patterns is perfect for you. For some golfers, grip surface that is rough or coarse is better than the smoother ones. The rough surface can provide a more stable grip and hand traction.
The firmness of the grip can also affect the player’s swing. There are golf grips that provide a firmer feel and are perfect for golfers that have very high swing speeds. Firmer grips are usually preferred by professional golfers because they can give a higher level of stability during swings.
Also, don’t forget that there are comfort grips. This type of grip can provide a softer feel and is usually perfect for beginner golfers. Comfort grips are for golfers with lower levels of swing speed. These are also tackier than firmer grips. However, they do not provide the same level of stability that firmer grips can give. Although they are softer and more comfortable to grip, golfers may need to exert additional hand pressure during swings.
The weather condition can also help determine which particular golf grip will be perfect for your game. When playing during wet weather, you may need golf grips that are designed with heavy patterns that can provide a coarser texture to the grip. Such kind of grip provides extra traction to the hands. Smoother types of grips that are made from synthetic materials or plastics are not really suited for humid weather conditions.
One of the best ways to learn how to become an effective motivational speaker is by avoiding the biggest mistakes that others commit. Here are the five biggest mistakes that you should avoid.
1.Assuming that the members of the audience already know what you are talking about
This is a big mistake because: first, you risk talking about something that no one understands but you, rendering you an ineffective motivational speaker; and second, you risk offending people by telling them that they surely know something they actually don’t.
Even if some people in the audience know what you are talking about, care to explain briefly or give an introduction for those who are not aware of it. Do this even if you are just talking about a particular term, process, or incident. Most importantly, don’t say something like “Do you remember this when you were in fifth grade…” or “I’m sure everybody knows this…” because it will come across to some people as “You are an idiot if you don’t know what this is.”
Just go explain something and leave the assumptions to yourself. They’ll ask if they need further clarifications.
2.Starting the speech without argument or proposition
Some people in the audience don’t know what your speech is for while some are not even genuinely interested. Hence, you have to make them realize that they have to listen by raising an argument that will challenge their beliefs or by raising a proposition that will serve as the center of discussion. They may get lost halfway through your speech, but they can still get back on track if they know exactly what you are trying to prove or disprove.
An effective motivational speaker starts his speech with a question, a statement that represents his entire speech, or an anecdote that can show the audience the entire picture even before he starts.
3.Overuse of PowerPoint and other visual presentations
Visual presentations only serve two purposes: to prevent boredom and to clarify key pointers. They are strategically used in between long segments or parts of a speech to maintain the attention of the audience, and also serve as a reinforcement to make the key pointers easy to remember. A motivational speaker should never rely on visual presentations because these are just support. Otherwise, the speaker will look like a moderator who introduces the presentations and reads the texts for clarification instead.
4.No bottom line
Many motivational speakers get lost in their own pointers and arguments that they end up not knowing what to prove anymore. You can talk about the success behind online business for an hour, but it won’t mean anything if you can’t even tell the audience how it is significant to their lives. You can talk about the latest treatments in dreaded diseases that helped you overcome your own battle, but the audience won’t care if they won’t have an idea how to avail of them. You can talk about yourself the whole day, but it won’t inspire anyone if you can’t make a point in telling your life story.
Start with the bottom line when writing your speech. Build the body and collect the data from there.
5.Not injecting human interest
Non-scientists think that scientific paper presentations are boring because the speakers only talk of hard facts and data that are not readily usable for average people. That’s understandable though since the audience all belong to the scientific community.
However, imagine how a group of housewives or teenagers will react if you present them charts full of statistics and data that are hard to interpret. You can elaborate on the facts but it still won’t be enough because they need to have something that they can relate to. This is where human interest enters the picture.
Mention examples that apply the facts that you will present. Give anecdotes. Make them more human and less numbers. They can’t be motivated if they can’t understand a thing you are saying.
Writing for the web is not an easy task. Aside from being fluent in writing with the language that potential buyers can easily understood, content writers should also be knowledgeable with the SEO tips that can optimize their articles for search engines. The aim of their article is not only to entertain and inform readers, it also aims to drive traffic to the website they are promoting.
For the professionals specializing in web writing, there are several things that they have to remember. These are the tips that can help content writers achieve their goal in web writing. Here are the tips that the writers should take advantage of when they are writing for the web.
First, it is recommended that a writer understands how the users read. Users do not usually read everything on the web, unlike a book where they read from cover to cover. Users usually skim content, trying to get to the gist of things without reading the entirety of the article. As a writer, it is imperative to understand this to make a better article.
Since the users will just be skimming for bits of information that can give them a quick impression on what the article’s message is, the writer must make sure to write content that can be easily skimmed and scanned. This means, the professional should be direct and meaning. If possible, try writing in bullet points and numbered lists as well.
Be as brief and concise as possible. There is no need to write using highfalutin words. The aim is not to impress the users with the writer’s familiarity of the dictionary, after all. The aim of the article is to make the most out of the interest of casual visitors, to keep them reading without having to scramble just to understand what those difficult words mean.
Be sure to know who the article is for. This means that the writer must know who the audience is, understand their needs, and why they come to the web page. Doing this allows content writers to determine what style they should use in their writing. It helps the professionals decide what information should be included in the articles, as well.
If the author knows who the audience is, then it should be easier to engage them. If the professional just imagines who the readers are and keep them in mind while writing, then it should be possible to use a voice in writing that talks to readers directly. There will be interaction with the audience, even through writing.
Content writers must build trust. That is why it is highly recommended that they remain factual and accurate with what they are writing. Verify the information included in articles, use links to trusted websites, or quote trusted experts. Fix any errors found in the article as soon as possible, as well.
Help the audience – as well as the search engines – to find the content. The content should be organized in the website in a way that is easily navigable. Make use of hyperlinks to make it easier for the readers to go to helpful sites. Take advantage of keyword research tools know what keywords the audience are likely to use when searching for your article. Make sure to use keyword phrases on the content as well.
Do not be stingy with the expert knowledge being shared in the content. Content writers should be generous in sharing what they know since users usually valuable expert knowledge. When you share expert knowledge honestly and generously, it helps build the credibility of your authority on the field. However, remember to organize one’s expert knowledge into pieces that the readers can easily digest.
These are just some of the tips worth following. The web writing professionals will surely achieve success in their field when they follow these tips. Be sure to spend time and effort into these tips to ensure that you gain the proper recognition in web writing.
Selling your property is an integral aspect of the daily deals going down in the real estate industry. But as with any market exchange, prospective buyers are actively trying to beat down your asking price. After a long time haggling, they can skip you and move on to a more willing seller. Whatever reason for selling your house, you have to ensure that your house has an optimal valuation possible and still leave you with a nice profit. To do that, you’ll have to follow these tips we prepared just for you.
Determining the market value of your property
The first step is usually to determine the value of your house. You can do this by researching the market value of its location. Generally, different neighborhoods attract different prices. So if you’re fortunate to have a property for sale in one of the ‘high brow’ areas, then you can expect a higher market valuation. The appraisal can be done by matching the comparable properties recently sold in your area. Of course, the type of building structure will also affect the results of the appraisal.
Next, consider the prevalent interest rates. Lower rates mean that buyers have a stronger purchasing power. This is most likely dependent on the state of the economy. If the economy is on a spiral, it will impact negatively on buyers’ pockets, limiting their ability to afford your property. Another factor determined by the state of the economy is the interplay of demand and supply in the real estate market. The principle that consumer goods with close substitutes will attract a lower price, applies here. If there are too many houses with similar settings as yours on the market, buyers can easily skip you and go for another.
Lastly, the current condition of your property will have a big say in estimating its value. How much curb appeal can your house generate at first glance? Does it badly need repairs? What popular features does it offer?
Other key factors that influence the selling price
After appraising the current market value of your property, the next thing is to understand the other key factors affecting your best selling price.
Buyers of real estate seem to believe that the longer a house is on the market, the lesser price it should demand. They place a higher value on brand new listings, thinking that if your house has spent too long in the market, it means there is probably something wrong with it. So it is generally recommended that you sell your house quickly to avoid occupying the market for a prolonged period. This can normally be determined by how flexible your terms of sale are. Do you need the cash so badly that you are only willing to accept one-time payments? Are you open to negotiating lower interest rates? If not, you may want to reconsider your stance.
Your agents play a very crucial role in how much you eventually get for your property. They can expedite the sale by aggressively marketing your property, but they can also charge you outrageous percentages. The key to choosing the right agents is to get quotations from more than just one. You can easily compare their valuations and decide which suits you better. After selecting the right agent, you have to maintain regular contact with them. Ask them for regular updates and situation reports. That’s what you’re paying them for.
And finally, you need to take necessary measures to ensure that your property is appealing. A Messy or smelly house is an immediate turn off to potential buyers. Declutter your house and invest in making it look desirable before setting a price.
Setting the best price
Now that you have a grasp on the pricing process, what is the ideal price you should tender? There are a couple of pricing strategies to help you decide.
A common approach is to employ the ‘Above the price’ strategy. This usually involves letting your prospective buyers know that you have limits when it comes to price, by stating that you will only consider offers above a fixed value. This generates more hype, because it attracts more buyers to your lower price, which will only cause the final selling price to rise since it cannot get any lower than your original ‘fixed price’’.
A second tactic, known as ‘The Wiggle Room Factor’, entails pricing your property a bit higher than its estimated market value since we are all likely to settle for a value below the actual asking price. This method gives wiggle room for negotiations. If there are less competing sellers, then you can confidently tighten the wiggle room knowing full well that buyers are more likely to give your property a second look. This can quite be a risk however because if you price it too high, buyers may skip over your property, extending the time your property will remain in the market. Eventually, you have to give in and widen the wiggle room just to get that property off your hands.
Another strategy suggests making sure that the price suits the current market trends; if the market is dull, present a lower price and if it is booming, instigate competition among your buyers by offering them a price close to your expected selling price. Then, you can simply go with the highest bidder.
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If you are into custom pin trading, chances are, you will be able to meet a lot of other collectors. There will be other collectors of baseball pins who will want to trade their own pins to get a chance to add more to their collection. Those who had just started out will be able to interact as well with those who are already into the hobby for a long time and information can be exchanged. Being able to interact is good, but manners when talking to a fellow trader must still be remembered:
•A fellow collector of baseball pins would usually have their pins worn on their clothes or hats for others to see. This means that they are prepared to get anyone else to trade pins with them. If you see a pin that you are particularly interested in, try to call the person’s attention politely and point out the pin you want. Remember to not touch the pin as a sign of respect.
•Pins for trade must be in pristine order and that they must look clean and undamaged.
•If you are interested in a certain pin but you don’t know of any information about it, feel free to ask a fellow collector.
•As a rule, if you are not sure about the trade with another trader, you may politely call of the trade. You must not force a fellow collector to trade with you if he in turn refuses.
•When trading, you must present a pin that can be of equal value to the pin that you want. The collector that you will be talking to can also look into your collection and see if he may want to get another pin that you own. Once you and the collector that you’re dealing with agree with the pin exchange, a handshake and “thank you” will close the deal.
•When you see two pin traders in a deal, do not interrupt them if you suddenly see that one of them has a pin that you want. Wait until they are done and then you can approach them.
With the use of the Internet, trading baseball pins online is also possible. Message boards can be used to post pictures of the pins that a trader is offering and those that are interested can reply to show their interest. Trading like this mean being able to talk without leaving their home.
Proper online behaviour must be followed when transacting online. Since talking through the Internet will only involve words, it will be hard to interact and give out any emotion, so some manners with the way you type what you want to say must be seen to avoid looking rude online:
•Avoid using all caps when writing online. Using all caps when writing can signify that you are angry or shouting when someone starts reading your letter or online post. Once you send your email or you post your online inquiry, be patient and wait for a reply. You can do a follow-up if there is still no response after a certain amount of time. If you are sent an inquiry, make sure you can respond on time as well.
•If a trade seems shady, look for assistance from other collectors. Also, if the pin to be traded looks too good to be true, check first if the collector is credible.
Being well-mannered when trading baseball pins will help in making other people remember you well. This will also make the trade fun and pleasant for both you and your fellow collector, and they may just contact you and start another trade in the future.